This post provides information on how to use the Custom Vertex Streams option on the Particle System component (also called Shuriken) to pass per-particle data into the shader. Note that it won’t go over how to use the component itself but there are plenty of tutorials online – here’s one that looks well written. In order to use a custom shader on a Particle System component you need to assign a Material in the Renderer module.
I’m working in the Universal Render Pipeline (URP) but the same concept should work for other pipelines too.
You may also want to look into the Visual Effect Graph. It can handle much more particles as it runs on the GPU rather than the CPU, but it is more complicated to set up and I think is currently only in preview for URP. I haven’t used it all that much but I believe you can pass data from the Visual Effect Graph into Shader Graph by using the Visual Effect Master node and setting up exposed properties in the shadergraph blackboard. However in order to use the shader in the VFX Graph, you may need to enable “Experimental Operators/Blocks” under Edit → Preferences, then a Shader Graph option on the Output Particle Quad/Triangle/Mesh block should appear. When set, the exposed properties should also be listed so you can control the inputs.
The rest of this tutorial isn’t related to that though and focuses on the Shuriken Particle System instead, just thought I’d mention it anyway.
The particle system component controls the colour of a particle by using the vertex colour (a colour value assigned to each vertex). This is the final colour result from the Start Color, combined with Color over Lifetime and Color by Speed modules if they are enabled on the Particle System.
In our shader we can use the COLOR semantic in the vertex shader inputs to obtain this vertex colour, and pass it through to the fragment shader. In shadergraph this is handled for us, we just need to use the Vertex Color node.
Inside the graph, we would also need to Split and put the A output into the Alpha on the Master node if we wanted the alpha of the vertex colour to control the transparency of the particle. We should also set the graph Surface mode to Transparent (by clicking the small cog on the Master node). The below graph is an example of this, which tints a texture with the colour.
Custom Vertex Streams
As well as colour, it can be useful to pass extra data from the particle system component into the shader. This can be handled using the Custom Vertex Streams option under the Renderer module on the Particle System component.
For this example I’m adding the Lifetime → AgePercent and Random → Stable.x options.
- AgePercent allows us to obtain the lifetime of the particle in a normalised 0-1 range (0 being just emitted and 1 at the end of its lifetime)
- StableRandom.x obtains a random value between 0 and 1 that the particle system generates for each particle, (that doesn’t change per frame like the VaryingRandom option does).
When adding these to the Custom Vertex Streams list, they are attached to one of the TEXCOORD shader inputs (known as UV channels in shadergraph). TEXCOORD0.xy is already used by the UV input for the particle texture, but each channel can include up to 4 values, x, y, z and w. The AgePercent and StableRandom.x values are single floats, so are added to the unused z and w components of the TEXCOORD0 channel, based on whichever order they appear in the list.
If we wanted two StableRandom values (.xy), it would continue to the next channel (so would be TEXCOORD0.w and TEXCOORD1.x). In this case, it may be better to reorder them so that StableRandom.xy uses TEXCOORD0.zw and AgePercent used TEXCOORD1.x so the values are slightly more organised. For this example we’ll just need a single random value though.
Note that an error/warning might appear stating the “Vertex Streams do not match the shader inputs”. As this suggests, the shader inputs should match the values in this list. For example this warning might show if the COLOR is included in the list while the shader doesn’t use the COLOR semantic for the vertex input struct (or Vertex Color node in terms of shadergraph).
Here’s some images to show how the AgePercent and StableRandom.x values look when output as colour (while still applying a texture so they aren’t just quads), and the final result of the shader effect I’m using for this example.
Now that we’ve set up the Custom Vertex Streams we can look at the shader graph to produce this effect.
For this example I’m using the StableRandom.x value as input to a Flipbook node to select a random tile from a texture that contains multiple cloud/smoke shapes to add variation into the particles. It’s also used to slightly affect the particle colour by putting it into a Lerp to remap the 0-1 range to 0.9 to 1.1 and multiplying it by the Vertex Color.
The AgePercent value is used to Step against the texture result to create a dissolve-like shader effect. The Preview nodes in the graph aren’t required, but I’m using them with a group to name the values so it’s clearer. Also note that while the Split is labelled RGBA, it’s the same as XYZW.
With a few adjustments to the settings on the Particle System component, mainly Color over Lifetime, Size over Lifetime and Rotation over Lifetime, this produces the result as shown before, also animated in this twitter gif here :
We could have instead applied the colour variation by setting the particle system’s Start Color to be Random Between Two Colors instead, as well as use the Color over Lifetime module’s alpha to control the dissolve amount, rather than the AgePercent input. I think the texture tiles can also be achieved through the Texture Sheet Animation module on the particle system too, but I wanted to use the Custom Vertex Streams more to demonstrate how it works. Also note the shadergraph above also ignores the Vertex Color alpha entirely as I didn’t want partially transparent particles.
Another useful option is the Custom Data module on the Particle System. This provides two slots to set some extra data which can be passed into the shader using the Custom1 and Custom2 options on the Custom Vertex Streams list. The Custom Data can be set to either a Color or Vector.
If Color is chosen, it has a dropdown next to the colour to switch between:
- Color : A single colour is used and stays constant
- Gradient : The colour goes through the gradient over the lifetime of each particle
- Random Between Two Colors : The resulting colour is chosen as a random linear interpolation between the two given colours
- Random Between Two Gradients : The resulting colour is a random linear interpolation between the two colours given by each gradient over the lifetime of each particle
When using Color, you should also make sure to use the Custom1.xyzw (or Custom2.xyzw for the second slot), to ensure all components of the colour are passed into the shader. It’s also worth noting that unlike the colours/gradients used by the rest of the particle system, the Custom Data ones can be HDR, so have an Intensity to have colours brighter than (1, 1, 1), which can be useful when using Bloom post processing.
If Vector is chosen, you can control the number of components needed (up to the maximum of 4, or 8 if both Custom Data slots are used). For each component, there is a dropdown to switch between :
• Constant : A value which stays constant
• Curve : The value goes through the curve over the lifetime of each particle
• Random Between Two Constants : The resulting value is chosen as a random linear interpolation between the two given values
• Random Between Two Curves : The resulting value is a random linear interpolation between the two values given by each curve over the lifetime of each particle
The Vector option as a Curve is particularly useful if you want a value to change over the lifetime, similar to what we did in the previous dissolve example – but a curve allows more control over how it dissolves rather than just the AgePercent and Lerp combo in the graph.
Thanks for reading, hope this is useful!